Small Battery Life

Discussion in 'Survival Kits' started by Pragmatist, Sep 9, 2020.

0/5, 0 votes

  1. Pragmatist

    Pragmatist Master Survivalist
      485/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    https://www.insurancejournal.com/news/national/2020/09/09/581897.htm


    Good afternoon all,

    This is the closest place to post this - I think.

    Article about lawsuits in re claims on longest lasting small batteries like the AA size ones.

    Duracell and Energiser are suing each other re claims on longest lasting.

    This is important to Preppers ....... er ... it should be.

    In the shack here, for routine battery powered use stuff, I use basic brands of lowest cost in when getting large quantities eg 36 batteries in a small plastic tub.

    For Prepper work, I lean toward Duracell based on a specific philosophy governing my requirements.

    I have 2 Streamlight brand flashlights that recharge via juice in the wall from Dominion Energy. Inside the flashlight are 4 batteries always at the ready. I forgot the reason but only 2 brands are recommended with one being Duracell. Forgot the other brand.

    I use Duracell because the casing is 2-toned and easy to recognize as a battery allowed in my streamlights.

    Here in the shack it's easy to turn on the lights and leisurely load batteries (an exception being not leisurely to load a megaphone) .

    Based on living a full and active life everything from my protoplasm to my eyesight is fatigued will beyond what a sheltered suburb 73 year old would experience.

    I can't take a chance in a strange environment and under stress from some emergency such as dangerous weather, and load the worng type of battery and then place the charging unit into an electric juice plug in some airfield building, a small fire and rescue building, some public building, etc.

    Thus the 2 toned Duracells.

    ......

    I do admit to a heavy bias also to the Energizer because of their Energizer Bunny. I used to date Roger Rabbit's wife.

    ......

    Foot Note - not a rabbit foot note though:

    Duracell also has a 2 toned red and gold battery. Believe this type has the initial "umph" for certain applications like photography. I got them because the large pack was basically flat and easy to carry in a cargo vest.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  2. varuna

    varuna Tree killer & a cat person
      380/460

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Alkaline cell? Seriously? The only thing I currently have that still running in Alkaline cell is my mouse and headlamp. Everything else run using Li-ion cell. The only reason I haven't switch those two into using Li-ion cell is because they are rarely use
     
    Dalewick and TMT Tactical like this.
  3. Pragmatist

    Pragmatist Master Survivalist
      485/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Good morning Varuna,

    Yes, seriously.

    I mentioned in my initial post about the manufacturer's recommended selections.

    One of my governing philosophical principles is that after a response, less certain short ones, is to replace batteries with new ones.

    My helmet hight uses a Duracell alkaline.

    My megaphone uses almost anything.

    My inventory leans toward Duracell due their color-coding compared to other brands. Had already explained why in my initial post above.



    cc: Roger Rabbit's wife
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  4. Morgan101

    Morgan101 Master Survivalist
      485/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Are you concerned about cost, or the length of operation? IMHO this was an interesting comparison. I would fast forward to the end to see the results. I was satisfied with the methodology.

     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  5. Pragmatist

    Pragmatist Master Survivalist
      485/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Good afternoon Morgan,

    For field use, ie responder emergencies and Prepper emergencies, my 2 concerns are length of operation and the ability to readily see the battery when changing it. I'll be doing this during times of limited visibility and will be under stress.

    For routine use of batteries around this shack: cost.

    The first picturedred red Duracell Quantum is what I got in a flat blister pack that easily loads into a cargo vest.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  6. Morgan101

    Morgan101 Master Survivalist
      485/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    I would agree. For field use I would want the longest lasting battery I could find. The fewer changes and less spares to carry are very important.

    For the flashlight that is sitting in the end table in the den, and extra batteries are sitting in the drawer next to the flashlight cost is more of an issue.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  7. TexDanm

    TexDanm Shadow Dancer
      525/575

    Blog Posts:
    2
    With the advent of LED lighting, the size of batteries has gone down a lot. The old D cells batteries have just faded out and the C cells are following for lighting purposes. I prefer the Alkaline over the Li-ion for a simple reason. I have a LOT of battery-powered lights in my house. there is at least one in the ceiling of every room and hall. It isn't as bad as it used to be but rural lights go out more often than urban lights and when there is a major weather problem the deep rural places are at the end of the line for repairs.

    After Rita some people were 6 weeks without power. If you wait until something like that happens you are out of luck finding batteries or lights. Considering that they are not used much, Li-ion batteries would be a huge and mostly wasted expense. I have a toolbox full of batteries. If it is cool I have kerosine lighting, and heating and a 5-gallon jug of fuel. We have gone 7 to 10 days without power several times and had no issues. It is sort of fun to camp out at home if you have everything that you need ahead of time.

    I tried storing them in the freezer but honestly noted no real difference in life.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  8. TMT Tactical

    TMT Tactical The Great Lizard ! Staff Member
      510/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    While I have many, many alkaline batteries stored, I am switching over to rechargeable Li-ion batteries. Alkaline batteries loose strength / life over time. So storing more than I can utilize, could lead to having very weak batteries, when needed most. A small solar panel and a good supply of fully re-charged batteries should keep me going during an outage. I can't remember the last time I needed a C or D battery. AAA, AA or 9 Volts are my most common and the types of rechargeable's that I maintain. I do store a large selection of the button type batteries, more than I will ever use before they fade away. A couple of my optics use 2032 button batteries and I keep 10 in my range bag and 10 more in my work bench. I change out these batteries once a year, so I am technically covered for the next 10 years. LOL
     
    Last edited: Sep 13, 2020
  9. varuna

    varuna Tree killer & a cat person
      380/460

    Blog Posts:
    0
    If you need ready to use (at full capacity) in big hurry and with reasonable shelf life, then Lithium (primary) cell is your best option. Some Lithium (primary) cell also came in 1.5V. Li-ion cell suitable for things you use often. Which is why my headlamp still use Alkaline cell rather than Li-ion because switching to either Li-ion or Lithium (primary) cell for headlamp that is rarely use isn't cost efficient enough for me.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  10. Max rigger

    Max rigger Expert Member
      178/230

    Blog Posts:
    0
    I try and stick with things running on AA batteries, a couple of things use AAA. Eneloop batteries suit my needs, high power, very low and slow discharge rate and high recharge cycle. For me it makes no sense to buy batteries that go into the landfill when they run flat.
     
  11. Dalewick

    Dalewick Master Survivalist
      485/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Does anyone here have experience with EBL rechargeable batteries? I usually buy large quantities of batteries from the local dollar store and they do well for a couple of years. Anything I consider important has lithium or rechargeable batteries in it. Always looking for a better rechargeable battery.

    Dale
     
  12. lonewolf

    lonewolf Legendary Survivalist Staff Member
      510/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    I prefer wind up items, flashlights especially.
    the trouble with batteries is that we dont know how long they have been on the shop shelf before we buy them.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  13. varuna

    varuna Tree killer & a cat person
      380/460

    Blog Posts:
    0
    This EBL? Not familiar with that particular brand though.



    For secondary cell (rechargeable) you better off with Li-ion, even modern SSK (submarine) these days have began shifting to use Li-ion battery and getting rid their fuel cell.

    One thing I've notice about all Li-ion cell is their calendar cycle (lifetime) typically stand under 4 years regardless of their usage.
     
    Dalewick and TMT Tactical like this.
  14. varuna

    varuna Tree killer & a cat person
      380/460

    Blog Posts:
    0
    WHEN you need longer shelf life its more economical to go with primary cell (non rechargeable). Li-ion cell calendar cycle doesn't get over 4 years. Even within those 4 years you need to periodically charging them to keep their internal electronic circuit running to stabilize the cell chemical reaction.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  15. Pragmatist

    Pragmatist Master Survivalist
      485/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Good morning Lonewolf,

    One key aspect that must be factored in to windup items eg flashlights, radios, is the emergency causing hand injuries.

    It's not an absolute matter; just something to factor in for advanced-level Prepping.

    Personally, I have pre-existing hand injuries aggrivated by the arthritic processes from aging. Both are great news compared to the alternatives.

    Another related matter would be a whistle. Excellent, minimal cost, easy to carry but must factor in pending injuries.

    Again, all this is not absolute; just something to address.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  16. lonewolf

    lonewolf Legendary Survivalist Staff Member
      510/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    depending on the emergency injuries are always a factor.
    a whistle is a useful addition-if one wanted to be found that is!
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  17. F22 Simpilot

    F22 Simpilot Master Survivalist
      407/460

    Blog Posts:
    0
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  18. F22 Simpilot

    F22 Simpilot Master Survivalist
      407/460

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Now for some nostalgia. I'm not entirely sure if I have this right or not as I was just a kid in the 80s, but here is what I remember on how the Energizer Bunny came about.

    Back in the 80s, maybe around '85. There was an Energizer battery commercial that featured three battery operated toys. I can't remember what those toys were now, but I believe one may have been a robot, another a monkey banging two crash cymbals together or what ever you'd call them, and the now known Energizer Bunny. Well, each toy was doing there thing until all toys ran out of battery life leaving the Energizer Bunny left banging on his drum where he exits left or right screen. From that point forward there were kind of commercial spoofs were you'd think you were watching a regular commercial when all ofa sudden you'd hear a voice over say, "still going. Nothing out lasts the Energizer. It keeps going, and going, and going... where the Energizer Bunny exits left or right screen. This was back in the 90s. Now a days the Energizer commercials just feature the bunny banging away on his drum and in fact the Energizer Bunny has made a transformation now a days. I believe the early Energizer Bunny didn't look anything like the current Energizer Bunny.

    Anyway, I love to study commercials and find out what their appeal is, the marketing aspects, etc. Been like this since I was about five. :D Marketing firms do in fact hire focus groups and psychologists. They probably know more abut you than you know about yourself. And with analytics and telemetry they REALLY know about you. I firmly believe the smartphone is a marketers wet dream come true. Need I mention the use of subliminal messaging tactics? Yes, it's done. Everything from color, to shapes, smell, you name it.

    Okay, I was wrong after I just typed all that. LOL https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energizer_Bunny

    But I gotta say, my idea could have made a great commercial. This may have been the first Ad.

    You got hand it to their marketing arm. Probably one of the most successful commercials I have ever seen. And very clever.

    6ec4b76a5230a01a55b11ac372c5db23.gif
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  19. lonewolf

    lonewolf Legendary Survivalist Staff Member
      510/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    slightly off topic.
    adverts bore me, they are now longer than the programmes.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  20. Pragmatist

    Pragmatist Master Survivalist
      485/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Good morning Lonewolf,

    Wasn't refering to you, me or those other members working the advanced-level Prepper stuff.

    A few weeks ago, I posted an articel about an elderly California couple who got lost and seperated in a park. He got hurt. He saw/heard the SAR team near him but couldn't yell or use other signal due injury. If he had and count not use a whistle but he had other signaling devices, eg an electric "whistle (Foxx 40-uses a 9V btry) he might have been able to operate the small button on it.

    Don't forget opening a multi-tool ! It's a gamble for me now.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  21. lonewolf

    lonewolf Legendary Survivalist Staff Member
      510/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    a lot of elderly disabled people wear an emergency call button around their necks, I have known one or two people that have had this.
    could be classed as a form of preparedness I suppose.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  22. Max rigger

    Max rigger Expert Member
      178/230

    Blog Posts:
    0
    10 year discharge test on Eneloop showed they lost 10% or their capacity over TEN years, amazing performance and they are not that expensive to buy these days. Why buy a battery you will throw away? Makes no sense.

    Lonewolf mentioned hand cranked flashlights/radio's well, yes they work, they never work that well and they are mechanical and regardless of build quality they will break down so nothing more than tomorrow's landfill junk.
     
  23. lonewolf

    lonewolf Legendary Survivalist Staff Member
      510/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    wrong. I have flashlights (Task brand-double light) that are hand cranked still going strong after many years, cant remember when I bought them its been so long ago.
    no battery will last forever, dosent matter what it is or where it comes from, all battery life will eventually fail.
    FYI batteries dont go into landfill they are recycled.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  24. Pragmatist

    Pragmatist Master Survivalist
      485/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Good afternoon Lonewolf,

    A perfect example illustrating my point: a call button on a necklace type loop !

    Had been on the lookout for a somewhat more sophicated model (especially used in offshore industrial maritime trades) for Poltiregist's daughter. The transponder gets activated if instrument "experiences" attributes of a fall.

    Here, must report that the elderly disabled (I qualify !) using the nechlace call button abuse them. The company has a marketing slogan "Live alone without being alone". ...... as if this area's sleepy, backwater, improperly funded counties have 100 all weather, 4X4 EMT rescue vehicles......

    If the person uses medical oxygen, a scribe to prep the draft obituary would be most appropriate.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  25. Max rigger

    Max rigger Expert Member
      178/230

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Then you don't use it much, non of them last.

    Batteries do fail, the Eneloop latest generation IIRC will now go 2000 ++ charges before fail' they charge from standard NiMi chargers, small solar charger will do. The big drawback is batteries need recharging. The existing panels I've got will cope with the battery in the van, I'd need to be careful in short day months though. Last week I could easily have run a small wind turbine up in Scotland so I'm looking at something like a 500w rig that I can fold down for transport...just a bit of a new project for me really.
     
  26. Pragmatist

    Pragmatist Master Survivalist
      485/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Good afternoon Max,

    Ref a new project re a 500W "foldable" small wind turbine;

    I don't know if appropriate for your project but will mention I have a wind generator for the inflatable.

    Most of the typical non-industrial users have models at/below 400W, some do give 500W and one (D400) gives 600W. Numbers are for ideal conditions.

    For research or just my typing practice, some resources to check:

    Eclectic-energy.co.uk

    Marlec.co.uk

    Primuswindpower.com.

    silentwindgenerator.com

    Superwind.com

    The only need for me in a boat evac - in case of wildfires - is to work a Mr Coffee electric plug-in equivalent. I hesitate to have any type of open flame - even in best of appliances - during matters of stress . The reports are just too numerous to neglect if a value assigned to one's own protoplasm.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  27. varuna

    varuna Tree killer & a cat person
      380/460

    Blog Posts:
    0
    What a waste of energy to recycle. Should just throw them (along with other garbage) into incinerator and be done with it at a fraction of the cost of recycling, not to mention lower energy footprint. Or just dump them over ocean and let mother nature sort it out.

    Cheap / Expensive is SUBJECTIVE term. I'm so poor I live at around $6/day (seriously I do) what cheap for you could translate into expensive for me.

    Sorry for saying this, but I have to call BS on the 10 years and merely loosing 10% :mad:. Either that or you make serious error in interpreting them.

    Even cell made of either Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) or Lithium Titanate (Li2TiO3) of which both type has the longest life span among others type of Lithium cell will struggle to reach anywhere near 10 years let alone merely loosing 10% of wear. Furthermore I seriously doubt that Eneloop cell (I'm not even familiar with that particular brand) even made any of those long life type. In most likely case that Eneloop is a Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (LiNiMnCoO2)


     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  28. Max rigger

    Max rigger Expert Member
      178/230

    Blog Posts:
    0
  29. lonewolf

    lonewolf Legendary Survivalist Staff Member
      510/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Oh Typical, its you polluting the oceans is it?
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  30. varuna

    varuna Tree killer & a cat person
      380/460

    Blog Posts:
    0
    No. That would be the neighbouring WHITE dominated countries who really love to pointing finger to any NON WHITE country for polluting the ocean, even though all those plastic garbage could be traced back to its origin by reading the labels.

    In the depth of the sea, anything that sink get eaten by microbacterial (even steel hull ship), just look what happen to RMS Titanic, her hulls (plural) get degrade over time
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  31. lonewolf

    lonewolf Legendary Survivalist Staff Member
      510/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    no it gets eaten by sea creatures then the fish and it moves up the food chain and eventually to us humans.
    and dont start making this a RACIAL thing or you'll be out of here so fast your feet wont touch the ground!!
     
    Dalewick and TMT Tactical like this.
  32. F22 Simpilot

    F22 Simpilot Master Survivalist
      407/460

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Good grief. Bad enough you can't even eat wholesome sea fish without the threat of mercury. In fact, you can't dine on it a lot due to that. And I watched the director's commentary of the movie Rush Hour (can't remember which one) and Jackie Chan who's from Hong Kong said you can't even swim in their beaches due to all the pollutes they add to the water from manufacturing.

    Anyway, way to veer the fuck off on the topic about batteries.

    Anyway, sounds like this veer off needs a pic. I'm sure Duracell just loves me.
     

    Attached Files:

    TMT Tactical and Dalewick like this.
  33. F22 Simpilot

    F22 Simpilot Master Survivalist
      407/460

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Back on topic. I once had a flashlight that you charged by shaking it. But it was made super cheap and never lasted long at all. Great idea though, I'm sure it could be perfected.
     
    Rebecca and TMT Tactical like this.
  34. F22 Simpilot

    F22 Simpilot Master Survivalist
      407/460

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Also, I was looking at the subject of battery technology for stock ideas. I think the future is bright with battery technology, and it'll get better and better. Believe you me. I've read that they are working on silicon and carbon based batteries. I think it was carbon.
     
    TMT Tactical and Dalewick like this.
  35. Max rigger

    Max rigger Expert Member
      178/230

    Blog Posts:
    0
    At the moment battery technology is still fundamentally old tech. I'm not a fan of electric cars only because we are still reliant on old, slow charging systems so until there is some leap in battery technology I'll be sticking with petrol/gasoline vehicles :( I am surprised hydrogen fuel cells are not being used more.
     
  36. lonewolf

    lonewolf Legendary Survivalist Staff Member
      510/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    I dont know where the Govt think all this electric is coming from for all these electric cars, we dont have enough power stations as it is, that'll make the lights go out!
     
    Dalewick and TMT Tactical like this.
  37. lonewolf

    lonewolf Legendary Survivalist Staff Member
      510/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    whats with the swastika?
     
  38. Max rigger

    Max rigger Expert Member
      178/230

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Samuel Ruben, the father of Duracell batteries was Jewish, perhaps some link to that?
     
  39. Pragmatist

    Pragmatist Master Survivalist
      485/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Good morning F-22,

    Lithium Oxygen battery research is getting generous funding from the USG. Several labs are doing "pure" research on this.

    I believe this is the type battery needed for infantry laser rifles.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  40. lonewolf

    lonewolf Legendary Survivalist Staff Member
      510/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    perhaps, the swastika was a Hindu good luck charm before the Nazis nicked it.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  41. randyt

    randyt Master Survivalist
      385/460

    Blog Posts:
    0
    TMT Tactical and Rebecca like this.
  42. Rebecca

    Rebecca Master Survivalist
      265/345

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Any idea of how many recharge cycles their batteries can take before there is a significant loss in capacity? Or maybe how long you have owned them before the battery has to be replaced?
    I have a few cordless tools I use constantly but the batteries loosing capacity has become a real pain.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  43. Pragmatist

    Pragmatist Master Survivalist
      485/575

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Good morning Randy,

    If requirements met - especially standardization for the other tools - yes: good. The cost is ideal.

    My very small Prepper Group has a co-op set up for buying thr groceries and the co-op "spilled over" to some other categories. Not absolute, but we stick with Streamlight brand, Pennsylvania.

    I have the same experience as Rebecca mentions above. Thus, don't use rechargeables.

    ......

    Like just about all else in the advertising world for all the brands, "hands free" means only during ideal conditions !
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  44. Max rigger

    Max rigger Expert Member
      178/230

    Blog Posts:
    0
    Ok. all is clear now, the batteries were getting a Hindu blessing, great stuff :)
     
  45. Max rigger

    Max rigger Expert Member
      178/230

    Blog Posts:
    0
    They are much the same as the other well known brands, batteries should last +- 1000 charge cycles depending on usage in theory, I doubt many that get used heavily will last that many charges.
     
  46. randyt

    randyt Master Survivalist
      385/460

    Blog Posts:
    0
    I have not really tracked charges per life cycle. But they seem to last quite some time. I see them as more a stop gap measure between technology and primitive methods.

    I noticed in a amish hardware they have "cob" lights powered with rechargeable batteries.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  47. Overwatch

    Overwatch Expert Member
      125/173

    Blog Posts:
    0
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  48. Overwatch

    Overwatch Expert Member
      125/173

    Blog Posts:
    0
    You need to learn how to make your own batteries. Yup watch You tube.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  49. F22 Simpilot

    F22 Simpilot Master Survivalist
      407/460

    Blog Posts:
    0

    Because hydrogen is very hard to manufacture on the cheap and make it viable. In a place like Iceland it's not too hard, but here in the states or somewhere else it's not an easy process that's cheap enough. The only real viable and clean way of doing it is via high temperature electrolysis from nuclear power plants. If congress or politicians in general at the state and federal level weren't so spooked out from nuke plants, that would be the way to go for future electrical needs, especially since electric cars already put a strain on an already fragile electric grid. Plus, electric cars are not clean as they say. The chief electrical power that charges these vehicles come from coal or natural gas. Now we can make nuclear safe and we can reprocess the spent fuel, and that is what France does, though it's expensive. Now, I wouldn't put a nuke plant in earthquake pron areas though. That's just common sense. The nuke plants in California should be demolished once their time is due and switch to natural gas. There was a nuke plant in Colorado, but it got switched to natural gas. That fault line that runs from Illinois down to Mississippi or what ever should be considered as well. That leaves some 30 other states to set up shop.

    The type of car I think needs to come out are natural gas powered hybrids for four reasons:

    A) Natural gas is half as pollute as gasoline.

    B) In a hybrid engine configuration the pollutes will be even MORE minimized.

    C) The U.S. is the number one producer of natural gas.

    D) Natural gas is cheap.


    Will "they" do it? Nope! Like the big Pharma cartel, there is also a big oil/car cartel. I know it, we all know it, and knew it for years!
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
  50. F22 Simpilot

    F22 Simpilot Master Survivalist
      407/460

    Blog Posts:
    0

    The poster was coming off as a white supremacist or something. LOL At least that's wht I thought.


    I believe there were many uses of that symbol. I think in one case it was also used for a native American tribe.
     
    TMT Tactical likes this.
Loading...
Similar Threads Forum Date
Grid Down Small Battery (aa/aaa) Recharging Creating and Using Electricity Nov 23, 2019
Later; For Small Prepper Groups' Health Monitoring Other Useful Objects Oct 20, 2020
New Small Helo Survival Kit Other Advanced Survival Skills Jul 9, 2020
Article On Dust Covers For Small Noses News, Current Events, and Politics Jun 21, 2020
Small Virginia Church Gets Fed Attention News, Current Events, and Politics May 23, 2020
"survival" Bag Of Food; Helps Small Businesses. Responders News, Current Events, and Politics May 15, 2020
Small Pox Doc: A Semi "i Told You So." News, Current Events, and Politics Mar 29, 2020
Small Generators In California News, Current Events, and Politics Nov 7, 2019
Smallpox Vaccine For National Stockpile News, Current Events, and Politics Sep 6, 2019
Who Would Restrict Travel First, Big City Or Small Town? General Q&A Sep 1, 2019

Share This Page